Deploy a baker with remote signer


You will need your baking address and Ledger authorized path. Follow these instructions to get them.


First, deploy the Tezos-on-GKE baking setup in the cluster.

You may deploy it from the tezos-on-gke repo itself using the quickstart instructions, however it is better to follow production best practices.

As parameter to deploy the cluster, provide a baking_nodes map as follows:

baking_nodes = {
  mynode = {
    mybaker = {
      authorized_signers : []


Note that authorized_signers is empty for now.

ssh endpoint host key

A ssh server normally generates its host keys during installation. Here, we are generating them externally and injecting them into the setup as a terraform and kubernetes secrets.

This way, in case of complete destruction of the cluster, the operator is able to restore the ssh endpoint with the same host key.

Combined with a static hostname (see explanation below), the remote signer will connect to a newly recovered cluster without noticing it has changed. If the host key changes, there will be a ssh warning preventing the remote signer from connecting.

Since you may not have access to the remote signer, it is essential to configure this host key.

Pass it as a variable to keep it secret:


Then in terraform.tfvars, use a heredoc to specify the key:

signer_target_host_key = <<-EOK
<the key>

Get the tunneling endpoint IP address

Issue the following command:

gcloud compute addresses list --project <project_name>

The tezos-baker-lb address is the one that you will configure the remote signer to connect to.

It is recommended to map this IP address to a fixed, randomly generated hostname. This way, the remote signer will always manage to connect to the ssh endpoint, even if the cluster gets completely regenerated and gets assigned a new IP. Otherwise, ssh will give a warning that the host key changed, or that the IP is unknown, and it will not automatically reconnect. This is a problem if you do not have another way of logging in to the remote signer.

Configure the remote signer

The remote signer installation is fully automated using Ansible. The README of the tezos-remote-signer-os-repo has more detail on how to set it up.

The remote signer needs two inputs to configure itself:

  • the hostname for the ssh endpoint, to be configured in the tezos-remote-signer manifest
  • the port where the signer endpoint will be forwarded on the cloud. You can pick any port, but it must be globally unique across your deployment if you have several remote signers.

Once complete, you must create a RSA key pair in the signer. ssh to it as tezos user, then issue the following command:


Then, take note of the RSA public key:

cat /home/tezos/.ssh/

Configure the endpoint

You may now declare this remote signer in the terraform parameter baking_nodes.

You need to pass the ssh public key as well as the signer forwarding port that you set up in the previous step:

baking_nodes = {
  mynode = {
    mybaker = {
      authorized_signers : [
                { "ssh_pubkey" : "ssh-rsa AAAAB<snip>==",
                  "signer_port" : 8444 } ]

Then taint and apply the terraform module.

Test the endpoint

Once terraform has deployed, you should be able to ssh from the signer to the endpoint.

Test it by sshing to the signer as tezos user, then:

ssh -p 58255 signer@<tunneling endpoint hostname>

The first time, you need to type yes to add this host to the known hosts.

If you see the message This account is not available, it means that the connection has been succesfully established.

If you are using alerting, and if the Ledger is connected and the baking app is on, the NoRemoteSigner alert should clear at this point.